Tag: Internet Studies

Black Twitter: My research questions and a working title

My dissertation proposal has finally been submitted, supervisor and advisor  allocated and now just waiting for feedback – so of course I expect some of the things I post below to change but so far this is what I am working with.

My working title is “Black Twitter” – A Critical Race Approach to Exploring Race and Racism Online.

My questions/objectives are:

  1. Why Black Twitter/Where is White Twitter?:  By framing Twitter as a racialised/White place I am interested in the the origin, evolution of Black Twitter and what its continued use as a marker of an online racialised space, especially given the ‘absence’ of a named “White Twitter”,  reveals about race and racism online.
  2. Black Twitter Membership: Unlike other social networking sites where one’s personal profile is the focus of interaction – on Twitter it is one’s tweets (i.e. the content of their Twitter message) that is central to the interaction.  In essence what is said, and possibly even how it is said on Twitter is (supposedly) considered more important than who said it.  I want to understand how the relationship between the ‘what’ and the ‘who’ of tweets impacts Black Twitter inclusion and exclusion.  Is every black person on Twitter a member of Black Twitter by virtue of being black and on Twitter? Or is Black Twitter only for those who Tweet using ‘Black Tags’, and if so can a White person tweet within the space of Black Twitter?
  3. Universal Notion of Blackness? Given the global nature of  Twitter and the fact that the term Black exists both as a racial descriptor and a political term; I want to explore the perspectives of non-African-American Black Twitter users on Black Twitter.

And my theoretical framework, is of course Critical Race Theory (CRT) – especially three of CRT’s key elements: critiquing the notion of colour-blindness, essentialism, and counter-storytelling.

Methodology:  I am certainly a more qualitative than quantitative person and while I am not 100% of my methodology I would like to conduct in-depth twitter users who self identify as African, African-American, Black-African, Black-British, or Black-Caribbean.  There will also be Twitter analysis,  tracking trending topics and hashtags and possibly even some statistics.

Who knows where the feedback I receive will take me…but that is where I am at right now.

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Focusing my MSc research: Race, Racism and Black Twitter?

When I started this blog it seemed like the dissertation planning process was years away.  Now I am a month away from submitting my first proposal.  “Just” 1,000 words and a brief outline of what I intend to research and why I want to research it.  I no longer have the luxury of focusing on three very broad topics: race, technology and development.  I have to narrow this down to something that can be researched in a few months and converted into a 12,000 – 15,000 dissertation.  This is also means that I can’t afford to simply post links to articles, journals etc without engaging with the material – something I was reluctant to do a few months ago because I felt that my ideas still needed some refining.  Well, the time has come for me to do more than just read and focus my research around a topic or (at this stage) themes that I can transform into a dissertation proposal.

This process is proving harder than I thought.  As the mind map below illustrates I had (and still have) loads of ideas/potential research areas floating about in my mind

Mind Map
Somewhere in this jumble of words a dissertation question shall emerge

From the very start I knew I was interested in race and I wanted to use Critical Race Theory as a framework.  Sometime in the summer I read  Prof. Jessie Daniel’s paper on Race, Racism and Internet Studies and there two things in her review that stood out for me:

this:

There are interesting conversations about race happening on Twitter (e.g., sometimes following hashtags such as #blacktwitter and #browntwitterbird). To date, there is no research in the peer-reviewed literature about race, racism and Twitter and this will surely change soon (Daniels, 2012 p.171)

and this:

Even more unusual is any recognition of racism on the Internet and this is connected, I argue, to the theoretical weakness of the prevailing racial formation theory in Internet studies (Daniels, 2012 p 172)
Daniel’s not only identifies an under-researched area of Internet Studies but also suggests that perhaps an alternative theoretical framework be used to improve understanding on race/racism and Internet Studies.
 I had already given some thought on how Critical Race Theory could work as a  potential theoretical approach but Daniel’s paper really got me thinking more about Twitter and specifically Black Twitter.   It is still early days in the process and as the mind map illustrates – those items in green; Internet Studies, Race, Twitter, Black Twitter, Critical Race Theory; are the sort of broad areas of interest to me but I am certainly becoming more focused in my reading and questioning.
One area that I think I would like to explore is the potentially US-centric nature of the term Black Twitter and how it impacts non-American black twitter users. No doubt there will be other areas of interest and I will certainly be using this blog to examine these other areas.  I anticipate that as a result of this (slightly) more focused approach, this blog will become less about general ICT4D and race topics and more about the construction and  performance of blackness in the Twitterverse.
References:
Daniels, J. 2013.  “Race, Racism & Internet Studies: A Review and Critique” New Media & Society. Special issue“Internet Studies: The State of An Emerging Field,” Charles Ess and William Dutton, Editors. (Published Online ahead of Print. doi: 1461444812462849)

Race and racism in Internet Studies: A review and critique

New Media and Society‘s latest release is a special release focusing on  the Rise of Internet Studies.  Of particular interest to to anyone researching race and the internet is  Jessie Daniel‘s article,  Race and racism in Internet Studies: A review and critique.

Abstract:

Race and racism persist online in ways that are both new and unique to the Internet, alongside vestiges of centuries-old forms that reverberate significantly both offline and on. As we mark 15 years into the field of Internet studies, it becomes necessary to assess what the extant research tells us about race and racism. This paper provides an analysis of the literature on race and racism in Internet studies in the broad areas of (1) race and the structure of the Internet, (2) race and racism matters in what we do online, and (3) race, social control and Internet law. Then, drawing on a range of theoretical perspectives, including Hall’s spectacle of the Other and DuBois’s view of white culture, the paper offers an analysis and critique of the field, in particular the use of racial formation theory. Finally, the paper points to the need for a critical understanding of whiteness in Internet studies.

Read full article (this is not an Open Access to journal)

Reference:  Daniels, Jessie. “Race and Racism in Internet Studies: A Review and Critique.” New Media & Society 15, no. 5 ( 2013): 695–719. DOI: 10.1177/1461444812462849